jerusalem artichocke

Discussion in 'Planting, growing, nurturing Plants' started by heftzwecke, Dec 6, 2011.

  1. heftzwecke

    heftzwecke Junior Member

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    I have planted quite a few jerusalem artichockes, because you never know. But I'm a bit afraid of the harvest. They bear enourmously. I have planted some in shade to, to see how this goes.
    Apparently they have been a staple for North American Indians but when they have been a staple,my guessis that they must have cooked them in a way to convert the inulin in usual starch. Any information?
    If not sheep do eat them but it's not their favourite.
     
  2. Grahame

    Grahame Senior Member

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    I like to eat them raw in a salad.

    When you do harvest them, you can store them underground for quite a while. I once made a hole in the ground, covered them with straw and covered the straw with more earth. It worked pretty well. At the very least you will have fresh tubers to plant next year.
     
  3. FREE Permaculture

    FREE Permaculture Junior Member

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    pig food.
    you can just harvest what you want and leave it in it's spot.
    it never needs to be totally dug up.
    if you want a big piece you just lift a whole main clump out.

    But if you don't have pigs then why not just do the same thing with potato's.
    plant out a patch and bandicoot away, never dig them all up and they keep coming up year after year, beautiful new potato's all the time.
     
  4. heftzwecke

    heftzwecke Junior Member

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    Their starch is not as usefull as potatoes, and if you use them like potatoes you should not eat huge quantities, or you might not need a motor in your car.
     
  5. Finchj

    Finchj Junior Member

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    They sure do make us have a lot of gas. Tried them a couple months ago at another garden... tasty, but gas. Although I've read that if you consume them regularly that your body will eventually adjust. I wonder if this is true?

    At the least they will provide our garden with a hardy native nectary crop, even if we decide not to eat them.

    Has anyone been consuming them regularly and noticed that the amount of gas decreases?
     
  6. Wolf_rt

    Wolf_rt Junior Member

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    It appears that refrigeration or storage in the ground as suggested lets the inulin turn to fructose and makes the root sweeter and more digestible.


    Found some info here https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/jerusart.html

    A. Human Food:
    Jerusalem artichoke tubers resemble potatoes except the carbohydrates composing 75 to 80% of the tubers are in the form of inulin rather than starch. Once the tubers are stored in the ground or refrigerated, the inulin is converted to fructose and the tubers develop a much sweeter taste. Dehydrated and ground tubers can be stored for long periods without protein and sugar deterioration. Tubers can be prepared in ways similar to potatoes. In addition, they can be eaten raw, or made into flour, or pickled.

    B. Alcohol Production:
    In France the artichoke has been used for wine and beer production for many years. Ethanol and butanol, two fuel grade alcohols, can be produced from Jerusalem artichokes.

    C. Fructose Production:
    Although the Jerusalem artichoke is a viable fructose source, the U.S. sugar industry has been hesitant in utilizing it because farmers have been concerried with its potential as a weed problem, and because it requires extra planting and harvesting equipment along with storage difficulties.


    Also from Wiki on Inulin

    Inulin is increasingly used in processed foods because it has unusually adaptable characteristics. Its flavour ranges from bland to subtly sweet (approx. 10% sweetness of sugar/sucrose).[2] It can be used to replace sugar, fat, and flour. This is advantageous because inulin contains 25-35% of the food energy of carbohydrates (starch, sugar).[3] While inulin is a versatile ingredient, it also has health benefits. Inulin increases calcium absorption[4] and possibly magnesium absorption,[5] while promoting the growth of intestinal bacteria. In terms of nutrition, it is considered a form of soluble fiber and is sometimes categorized as a prebiotic. Due to the body's limited ability to process fructans, inulin has minimal increasing impact on blood sugar, and—unlike fructose—is not insulemic and does not raise triglycerides,[6] making it considered suitable for diabetics and potentially helpful in managing blood sugar-related illnesses. The consumption of large quantities (in particular, by sensitive or unaccustomed individuals) can lead to gas and bloating, and products that contain inulin will sometimes include a warning to add it gradually to one's diet.
     
  7. heftzwecke

    heftzwecke Junior Member

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    I wonder if there is a harvesting/treating /cooking method which converts the inulin in regular strarch.
    However, inulin is healthy as it increases the calcium intake.
     
  8. mischief

    mischief Senior Member

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    Another good point with this plant is it produces lots of green stuff.
    After spending ages pulling out seedlings I reccommend trimming it when it flowers so you dont wind up with it everywhere.
    Its a good weed suppressant too,I dont have anything growing under these.

    Harvest as needed, why bother to pull them out and have to go through the bother of storing them in yet more soil when they will store themselves better than you can.
     
  9. pippimac

    pippimac Junior Member

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    Apparently if the tubers are carefully stored, the inulin converts to fructose. I imagine this process would significantly reduce the fartyness, since inulin's the major reason for the gas issues. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/jerusart.html
    I'd be curious to hear from people about storing artichokes. When I've tried, they've gone squishy really fast.
    Maybe the fridge is a good place for them. Spuds can't be refridgerated since the cold converts starches to sugars, but that's what we want with artichokes (if not diabetic), so that might speed up the process and keep them firm.
    mischief, do your artichokes grow from seed? I thought the flowers were sterile. I've only put the tubers in this season and they're very contained. If there's a likelyhood of them spreading everywhere, I'll need to rethink....
     
  10. Finchj

    Finchj Junior Member

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    I've heard the same about making sure they don't go to seed- else they will wind up everywhere.

    It doesn't freeze in Wellington? Again, since I have only put the tubers in the ground this fall for next year, all my info comes from reading and a friend in FL (where it rarely freezes). The recommendation for storage is leaving them in the ground and harvesting after the first real frost. The flavor is supposed to improve with cold temperatures. Since sunchokes originate in the Midwest of N. America, I'm not sure what the storage recommendations are for warmer areas.

    Although refrigerating them sounds like the best way to go.
     
  11. mischief

    mischief Senior Member

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    They turned up on their own at my place years ago.
    I have pulled out tubers at one end along the fence so there is a big gap where I noticed the young plants this year.
    The tubers at the base of these were very small/unformed and there werent any old ones witht them-conclusion is they are seedlings....from flowers.

    I tried storing them in the fridge and they did not taste good and lost their form.
    I leave them in the ground until I want them and get what I need for that meal.
     
  12. Pakanohida

    Pakanohida Junior Member

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    You can eat them raw, boiled, fried, or roasted. If you don't harvest, they can be somewhat invasive.

    Great mulch crop, and good barrier against deer, they don't seem to like the hairs on the stems.
     
  13. Speedy

    Speedy Junior Member

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    When Agaves are used as a food or feedstock for alcohol, they are first baked for about 24hours.
    the edible Agave species cotain mainly inulins that are converted to fructose in the long baking process.

    I've cooked agave (A.lurida) hearts and they're almost apple like in their taste, very also fibrous ,
    but with a definite 'Agave' taste that's found in Mezcal.

    I've often wondered about giving Sunroot (J.Artichokes) a go.
     
  14. Michaelangelica

    Michaelangelica Junior Member

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    Interesting thread I wish they were a weed in my climate/ Perhaps it is too humid here? The flowers alone are enough reason to grow it!

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), a medicinal salt-resistant plant has high adaptability and multiple-use values.
    Ma X.Y., Zhang L.H., Shao H.B., Xu G., Zhang F., Ni F.T., Brestic M.
    Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 5 (8) (pp 1275-1282), 2011
    https://academicjournals.org/JMPR/PDF/pdf2011/18April/Ma et al.pdf

    the plant has been extensively cultivated for improving salt-alkaline soils, oilpolluted soils and coal-mining soils at large scale


    Jerusalem artichoke is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of 31 to 282 cm, and average annual temperature of 6.3 to 26.6°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.2 (Duke, 1983). As a very easily-grown plant, it is a suitable crop that adapts well to a wide range of soil types
    and pH levels in a sunny position where corn will grow

    Proteins contain almost all essential amino acids such as threonine and tryptophan (Table 1). They can be found in tubers in larger content than in other similar root
    crops, so H. tuberosus is considered as a quality food

     
  15. ppp

    ppp Junior Member

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    We have grown them very successfully I think three Plants resulted in a 10litre bucket at harvest time. Half decent soil but up with compost Nd manure. Our preferred cooking method is roasting with salt and oil. Yum. Stored for a few months fine in some slightly damp soil in the shed. Also fine out of the freezer.
    I'm into making good beverages of the alcoholic variety perhaps that should be an up coming project
     
  16. Pakanohida

    Pakanohida Junior Member

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    PPP,

    Do you know what variety you grew? My only supplier has 3 variety.
     
  17. Michaelangelica

    Michaelangelica Junior Member

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    Considerable interest has been generated in Jerusalem artichoke tubers(JAT) (Helianthus tuberosus L.), mainly because this crop is an excellent source of both soluble and insoluble fibers. Fructooligosaccharides(FOS), the soluble fibers components have been identified as an important substrate for desirable intestinal flora, especially bifidobacteria as recorded by Roberfroid et al. (1998) and El-Hofi (2005).

    Also used for prevention of cancer as recorded by Slavin (1977).

    In general, soluble fibers decrease serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without affecting serum triglycerides. Often consumption of these soluble fibers is accompanied by distinct reductions in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Soluble fibers such as inulin which found in a number of mono and dicotyledonous families such as Onion, Jerusalem artichoke and barleyappear to exert their principal effects on cholesterol metabolism through a decrease in bile acid absorption in the small intestine according to Anderson and Hanna (1999).

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) helps in maintain blood sugar level in the human at normal level. The effect of JAT asreported by Alegria and Vivanco (2004) is due to optimum quantity of the polysaccharide inulin, potentially useful for diabetics.

    Inulin is a plant-derived carbohydrate wi
    https://www.aensionline.com/jasr/jasr/2012/1328-1336.pdf

    Storage
    https://notulaebotanicae.ro/nbha/article/viewFile/62/45

    Article also on the plant in this month's Hortjournal (oz) but not published on line yet, will post it when I can
     
  18. NGcomm

    NGcomm Junior Member

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    Planted Jerusalem artichokes in Canberra (35 degrees south) as visual/summer wind brakes around 3 years ago, interspersed with a variety of sunflowers (I believe they are in the same family). This layout provides a great visual barrier to the street for most of the summer and into autumn as the JA come on just as the sunflowers are dying back. Both the sunflower and JA sticks are cut late autumn and dried for use as trellises for beans and other climbers as the JA's get to around 3 mtr's tall (as do a lot of the heritage sunflowers we sow).

    As a diabetic I use them a lot in cooking with JA and persimmon soup being one of my favourites. Stored in ground and used as chicken food when they get a bit too old or plentiful to manage. Also have planted out in a small farm after reading permaculture book by Sepp Holzer and will just pen off areas for pigs to forage if they get out of control, that’s if there is any left after all the mice have been at them!
     
  19. eco4560

    eco4560 New Member

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    You must share the recipe with us - that sounds really interesting!
     
  20. Michaelangelica

    Michaelangelica Junior Member

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