IPCC report on climate change

Discussion in 'The big picture' started by Sonya, Oct 9, 2007.

  1. Sonya

    Sonya Junior Member

    May 11, 2006
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    The IPCC has its latest report due out in November. Tim Flannery was interviewed on ABC's Lateline on Monday about it.

    The report shows that the critical tipping point of climate change which was expected to happen in 2015, actually happened in 2005.

    The transcript of the interview is here...

    https://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/ ... 054168.htm

  2. Jez

    Jez Junior Member

    Nov 19, 2005
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    Thanks Sonya...beat me to it! :lol:

    There's going to be a lot more to come from the IPCC yet...for example, they've barely began to discuss the further effects of global dimming.

    IMO, what we really need to keep in mind is that the IPCC presents a concensus between the very conservative scientists and the rest, so anything they present is quite conservative in its findings.

    Even the findings of 'climate radicals' like James Hansen who predict dire consequences very soon are starting to look conservative.

    Sadly, I think the background murmur about techno-fix 'planetary engineering' will quickly become the dominant voice in the debate. The US wants to build a canopy over the earth or pump an enormous amount of dust into the atmosphere, Lovelock has come out in support of an idea where the zero-oxygen water is pumped from the bottom of the oceans to the top in order to create more abundant oceanic life and sequester far more carbon.

    Of course, it's highly unlikely any of these 'solutions' will take energy and raw materials decline into account...it'll be hydrogen economy gobbledygook all over again.
  3. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    Climate Change Blamed for Fading Foliage

    "They're duller, not as sparkly, if you know what I mean,"

    "It's nothing like it used to be," said University of Vermont plant biologist Tom Vogelmann,

    The problem is perception

    It's very concerning if you think the business could start to be affected."
    https://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jCOF ... wD8SDCLNO0
  4. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    https://www.csiro.au/promos/ozadvances/S ... eMovB.html
    We missed that one...
    https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg1 ... t-one.html
    https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Ha ... tnG=Search

    bad timing....

    Time series of daily erythemal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, ozone, and cloud cover were analyzed over the Australian continent using data sets from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) from 1979-1992.

    https://www.sciencedaily.com/news/earth_ ... one_holes/
    Addiction to banned fumigant hard to kick
    https://www.smh.com.au/news/national/add ... 65141.html

    But much like every effort in the 15-year fight against methyl bromide, the victory for the environmentalists was short-lived.

    Last month, the California Air Resources Board, in conjunction with the California Department of Pesticide Regulation, gave farmers an extra four years to greatly curb pollution from methyl bromide and other fumigants. Now farmers have until 2012 to gradually meet standards mandated in a court order, instead of Jan. 1, 2008.

    scientists say that MeI is not the answer as a MeBr substitute. On September 24 2007, 54 scientists, most members of the National Academy of Sciences, including six Nobel laureates, urged EPA Administrator Stephen Johnson not to register MeI as a soil fumigant because of the high risks it poses to human health and the environment.
    https://www.tcdailyplanet.net/article/20 ... lture.html
  5. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    The changes "characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected
    and sooner-than-expected climate forcing," the researchers report.

    Kevin Trenberth of the climate analysis section of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. said the "paper raises some very important issues that the public should be aware of: Namely that concentrations of CO are increasing at much higher rates than previously expected and this is in spite of the Kyoto Protocol that is designed to hold them down in western countries."
    https://www.mercurynews.com/nationworld/ ... ck_check=1
  6. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    a report released this week by Research Australia (RA), a national non-profit alliance of health and medical research organisations.

    "Climate change doesn't exist in isolation," said McMichael, the head of the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health at Canberra's Australian National University and lead author of the Research Australia report. "Increasingly, the risk it poses to human well-being and health is now being seen as part of the policy discussion agenda."

    McMichael points to evidence piling up in a swag of reports. It makes for grim reading, as a few key messages from this month's Global Environment Outlook reveal. Produced for the UN Environment Program, that assessment concludes that more than 2 million people globally die prematurely every year due to outdoor and indoor air pollution.

    Then there's the ozone hole over Antarctica. It's the biggest it's ever been, so more skin and gene-damaging ultraviolet radiation hits millions of people living beneath it. That means Australians.

    According to the outlook, 60 per cent of global fish stocks have collapsed and about 40 per cent are falling precipitously, increasing the risk of starvation for people who depend on them. Fresh water? Availability per person has plummeted. Three million people die of water-related diseases each year. By 2050, close to two billion people may face "absolute" water scarcity. There's more....
    https://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/st ... 89,00.html

    Human health and ecological consequences of ozone depletion
    Estimating present and future changes in UV radiation due to ozone depletion
    https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/dees/V ... index.html


    Deleted Text from CDC Testimony on Global Warming and Public Health Compared With
    Relevant Findings of Nobel Prize Winning Scientific Body on Global Warming’s Impacts
    Deleted Text
    IPCC Report Statements
    “Climate Change is Public Health Concern
    In the United States, climate change is likely to have a significant
    impact on health, through links with the following outcomes:
    • Direct effects of heat,
    • Health effects related to extreme weather events,
    • Air pollution-related health effects,
    • Allergic diseases,
    • Water- and food-borne infectious diseases,
    • Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases,
    • Food and water scarcity, at least for some populations,
    • Mental health problems, and
    • Long-term impacts of chronic diseases and other health
    “Emerging evidence of climate change effects on human health
    shows that climate change has:
    • [A]ltered the distribution of some infectious disease vectors…;
    • [A]ltered the seasonal distribution of some allergenic pollen…;
    ncreased heatwave-related deaths…
    Projected trends in climate-change-related exposures of importance
    to human health will:
    ncrease malnutrition and consequent disorders, including
    those relating to child growth and development…;
    ncrease the number of people suffering from death, disease,
    and injury from heatwaves, foods, storms, fires and droughts…;
    • [C]ontinue to change the range of some infectious disease vectors…
    ncrease the burden of diarrhoeal diseases…;
    ncrease cardio-respiratory morbidity and mortality associated
    with ground-level ozone….”
    “Several studies have confirmed and quantified the effects of high
    temperatures on common forms of food poisoning, such as
    “There is increasing evidence of the importance of mental disorders as an
    impact of disasters…Prolonged impairment resulting from common mental
    disorders (anxiety and depression) may be considerable.”
    “Water-borne diseases will rise with increases in extreme rainfall…In
    regions suffering from droughts, a greater incidence of diarrhoeal and other
    water-related diseases will mirror the deterioration in water quality…”
    Page 3
    Deleted Text
    IPCC Report Statements
    “Heat Stress and Direct Thermal Injury…
    The United States is expected to see an increase in the severity,
    duration, and frequency of extreme heat waves. This, coupled with
    an aging population, increases the likelihood of higher mortality as
    the elderly are more vulnerable to dying from exposure from
    excessive heat.”
    “Severe heatwaves…will intensify in magnitude and duration over the
    portions of the U.S…where they already occur…”
    “Local factors, such as…the proportion of elderly people, are important
    in determining the underlying temperature-mortality relationship in a
    “Extreme Weather Events…
    Climate Change is anticipated to alter the frequency, timing,
    intensity, and duration of extreme weather events, such as
    hurricanes and floods”
    “[C]onfidence has increased that some weather events and extremes will
    become more frequent, more widespread and/or more intense during the
    century; and more is known about potential effects of such
    “Air Pollution-Related Health Effects
    Climate change can affect air quality by modifying local weather
    patterns and pollutant concentrations, affecting natural sources of
    air pollution, and promoting the formation of secondary pollutants.
    Of particular concern is the impact of increased temperature and
    UV radiation on ozone formation. Some studies have shown that
    higher surface temperatures, especially in urban areas, encourage
    the formation of ground-level ozone. As a primary ingredient of
    smog, ground-level ozone is a public health concern. Ozone can
    irritate the respiratory system, reduce lung function, aggravate
    asthma, and inflame and damage cells that line the lungs. In
    addition, it may cause permanent lung damage and aggravate
    chronic lung diseases.”
    “Surface ozone concentrations may increase with a warmer climate.
    Ozone damages lung tissue, causing particular problems for people with
    asthma and other lung diseases. Even modest exposure to ozone may
    encourage the development of asthma in children…For the 2050s, daily
    average ozone levels are projected to increase by 3.7 ppb across the
    eastern U.S….with the cities most polluted today experiencing the
    greatest increase in ozone pollution…One-hour maximum ozone
    follows a similar pattern, with the number of summer days exceeding
    the 8-hour regulatory U.S. standard projected to increase by 68%.”
    “Allergic Disease
    Studies have shown that some plants, such as ragweed and poison
    ivy, grow faster and produce more allergens under conditions of
    high carbon dioxide and warm weather. As a result, allergic
    diseases and symptoms could worsen with climate change.”
    “Pollen, another air contaminant, is likely to increase with elevated
    temperature and atmospheric CO
    concentrations. A doubling of the
    atmospheric CO
    concentration stimulated ragweed-pollen production
    by over 50%...”
    “Water- and Food-borne Infectious Diseases
    Altered weather patterns resulting from climate change are likely to
    affect the distribution and incidence of food- and water-borne
    “Water-borne disease and degraded water quality are very likely to
    increase with more heavy precipitation….”
    Page 4
    Deleted Text
    IPCC Report Statements
    diseases. Changes in precipitation, temperature, humidity, and
    water salinity have been shown to affect the quality of water used
    for drinking, recreation, and commercial use. For example,
    outbreaks of Vibrio bacteria infections following the consumption
    of seafood and shellfish have been associated with increases in
    temperatures. Heavy rainfall has also been implicated as a
    contributing factor in the overloading and contamination of
    drinking water treatment systems, leading to illness from
    organisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Storm water
    runoff from heavy precipitation events can also increase fecal
    bacterial counts in coastal waters as well as nutrient load, which,
    coupled with increased sea-surface temperature, can lead to
    increases in the frequency and range of harmful algal blooms (red
    tides) and potent marine biotoxins such as ciguatera fish
    “Several studies have confirmed and quantified the effects of high
    temperatures on common forms of food poisoning, such as
    salmonellosis… In temperate countries, warmer weather and milder
    winters are likely to increase the abundance of flies and other pest
    species during the summer months, with the pests appearing earlier in
    spring…Warmer seas may thus contribute to increased cases of human
    shellfish and reef fish poisoning (ciguatera) and poleward expansions of
    these disease distributions…Overall, climate change is projected to
    increase the number of people at risk of hunger.”
    “Extreme rainfall and runoff events may increase the total microbial
    load in watercourses and drinking-water reservoirs…, although the
    linkage to cases of human disease is less certain…A study in the USA
    found an association between extreme rainfall events and monthly
    reports of outbreaks of water-borne disease…”
    “Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases
    Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, such as plague, Lyme disease,
    West Nile virus, malaria, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and
    dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern,
    suggesting that they are weather sensitive. Climate change-driven
    ecological changes, such as variations in rainfall and temperature,
    could significantly alter the range, seasonality, and human
    incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. More study
    is required to fully understand all the implications of ecological
    variables necessary to predict climate change effects on vector-
    borne and zoonotic diseases. Moderating factors such as housing
    quality, land-use patterns, and vector control programs make it
    unlikely that these climate changes will have a major impact on
    tropical diseases such as malaria and dengue fever spreading into
    the United States. However, climate change could aid in the
    establishment of exotic vector-borne diseases imported into the
    United States.”
    “Climate change is likely to increase risk and geographic spread of
    vector-borne infectious diseases, including Lyme disease and West Nile
    “Many zoonotic diseases are sensitive to climate fluctuations…The
    strain of West Nile virus (WNV) that emerged for the first time in North
    America during the record hot July 1999 requires warmer temperatures
    than other strains. The greatest WNV transmissions during the epidemic
    summers of 2002 to 2004 in the U.S. were linked to above-average
    temperatures…A 1993 hantavirus outbreak related indirectly to heavy
    rainfall led to a significant reduction in tourist visits to the American
    “Recent investigations of plague foci in North America and Asia with
    respect to the relationships between climatic variables, human disease
    cases…have suggested that temporal variations in plague risk can be
    estimated by monitoring key climatic variables.
    Page 5
    Deleted Text
    IPCC Report Statements
    There is good evidence that diseases transmitted by rodents sometimes
    increase during heavy rainfall and flooding because of altered patterns
    of human–pathogen–rodent contact…Cases of hantavirus pulmonary
    syndrome (HPS) were first reported in Central America (Panama) in
    2000, and a suggested cause was the increase in peri-domestic rodents
    following increased rainfall and flooding in surrounding areas…,
    although this requires further investigation. The distribution and
    emergence of other infectious diseases have been affected by weather
    and climate variability.
    “Food Scarcity
    Climate change is predicted to alter agricultural production, both
    directly and indirectly. This may lead to scarcity of some foods,
    increase food prices, and threaten access to food for Americans
    who experience food insecurity.”
    “Both acute and chronic nutritional problems are associated with
    climate variability and change. The effects of drought on health include
    deaths, malnutrition (undernutrition, protein-energy malnutrition and/or
    micronutrient deficiencies), infectious diseases and respiratory
    “North American agriculture has been exposed to many severe weather
    events during the past decade. More variable weather, coupled with out-
    migration from rural areas and economic stresses, has increased the
    vulnerability of the agricultural sector overall, raising concerns about its
    future capacity to cope with a more variable climate…North American
    agriculture is, however, dynamic. Adaptation to multiple stresses and
    opportunities, including changes in markets and weather, is a normal
    process for the sector.”
    “Vulnerability of North American agriculture to climatic change is
    multi-dimensional and is determined by interactions among pre-existing
    conditions, indirect stresses stemming from climate change (e.g.,
    Page 6
    Deleted Text
    IPCC Report Statements
    changes in pest competition, water availability), and the sector’s
    capacity to cope with multiple, interacting factors, including economic
    competition from other regions as well as advances in crop cultivars and
    farm management…Water access is the major factor limiting agriculture
    in south-east Arizona, but farmers in the region perceive that
    technologies and adaptations such as crop insurance have recently
    decreased vulnerability…Areas with marginal financial and resource
    endowments (e.g., the U.S. northern plains) are especially vulnerable to
    climate change…”
    Climate Change Vulnerability
    The effects of climate change will likely vary regionally and by
    population. The northern latitudes of the United States are
    expected to experience the largest increases in average
    “The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes
    through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation
    and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects,
    transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations
    of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography,
    however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities
    and capacities to adapt.”
    “Late in the century, projected annual warming is likely to be 2 to 3°C
    across the western, southern, and eastern continental edges, but more
    than 5ºC at high latitudes. The projected warming is greatest in winter at
    high latitudes and greatest in the summer in the southwest U.S. Warm
    extremes across North America are projected to become both more
    frequent and longer.”
    https://epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm? ... a34cbb03c1
  7. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    Researchers from the University of East Anglia have found that the North Atlantic Ocean is absorbing Carbon dioxide at a rapidly reducing rate. Drawing data from a ten-year study of the ocean’s CO2 absorption capacity, the researchers are reporting that the rate of absorption halved between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s.

    Half of all emitted carbon is absorbed by our ecosystem while the other half remains in the atmosphere. The mechanisms that absorb CO2 are often referred to as “carbon sinks.” These sinks include bodies of water like ocean, wetlands and lakes and land-based mechanisms like plants and soil. As the ocean becomes a less efficient sink (and as other sinks like tree canopy and wetlands are destroyed for development), a larger and larger percentage of our CO2 emissions remain in the atmosphere.
    https://www.aboutmyplanet.com/environmen ... re-carbon/

    Since both NPP and decomposition in peatlands is closely related to the moisture and thermal regime, if the predicted changes in climate occur, we would expect to see significant alterations in the carbon dynamics of peatlands. However, there are many uncertainties in magnitude and the direction of potential changes. Over the last few years there has been a consider increase in research that is attempting to better understand the carbon dynamics of northern peatlands.

    In the Kyoto Protocol's treatment of biological sinks, only LUCF was included, agricultural soils were alluded to and wetlands were not mentioned at all. When the author tabled a discussion paper on wetlands and climate change at the first ad hoc meeting of the National Sinks Table in April 1998 (Patterson, 1998), a reaction was that wetlands were not even being considered. Since then, this and related work in Canada and the U.S. has begun to focus attention on the issue of wetlands as sinks.

    Wetland sinks are currently in a catch-22 situation. They are the largest carbon reservoirs in the world. However, not enough is known about their dynamics, fluxes and responses to management to justify their inclusion in a competitive, distrusting and regulatory international negotiating process. The WBGU, 1998 favours preventing additional sinks activities until it is certain that all effects are positive. However, to permanently preclude wetlands from further consideration now could have serious implications on the protection and enhancement of carbon sinks, and on the promotion of sustainable development and biodiversity conservation opportunities in the developing world.

    Given the recent developments and achievements of wetland and waterfowl conservation that have exceeded any quantitative expectations, it makes sense to pursue a similar "no regrets" approach to biological sinks.

    A wide range of wetland taxa were studied, including microscopic zooplankton, large aquatic plants(macrophytes), riparian vegetation, frogs, and birds, to identify salinity thresholds and possible indicator species. Field-based research has shown that species are affected differently by salinity – but mostly negatively. Salinity thresholds were identified for a range of taxa and, for macrophytes, a way of determining critical salinity levels for these plants’ emergence, growth and diversity. Macrophytes are important in wetlands because they create structural complexity and are integral to a range of ecosystem processes, such as primary production.
    https://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/DSE/nrenari.n ... EA0017F485

    https://www.pewclimate.org/global-warmin ... ecosystems

    U.N.: Human Race Could Be Eliminated Unless Climate Change Issues Are Addressed

    Failure to address these persistent problems, UNEP says, may undo all the achievements so far on the simpler issues, and may threaten humanity's survival. But it insists: "The objective is not to present a dark and gloomy scenario, but an urgent call for action."

    A failure to address major problems faced by the planet including climate change, extinction of species and unsustainable development could threaten the survival of humanity, a United Nations report warned Thursday.

    GEO-4 recalls the Brundtland Commission's statement that the world does not face separate crises - the "environmental crisis", "development crisis", and "energy crisis" are all one. This crisis includes not just climate change, extinction rates and hunger, but other problems driven by growing human numbers, the rising consumption of the rich and the desperation of the poor.

    Examples are:

    -- decline of fish stocks;

    -- loss of fertile land through degradation;

    -- unsustainable pressure on resources;

    -- dwindling amount of fresh water available for humans and other creatures to share; and

    -- risk that environmental damage could pass unknown points of no return.

    GEO-4 says climate change is a "global priority", demanding political will and leadership. Yet it finds "a remarkable lack of urgency", and a "woefully inadequate" global response.

    Several highly-polluting countries have refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. GEO-4 says: "... some industrial sectors that were unfavorable to the... Protocol managed successfully to undermine the political will to ratify it." It says: "Fundamental changes in social and economic structures, including lifestyle changes, are crucial if rapid progress is to be achieved."

    Among the other critical points it identifies are:

    Water: Irrigation already takes about 70 per cent of available water, yet meeting the Millennium Development Goal on hunger will mean doubling food production by 2050. Fresh water is declining: by 2025, water use is predicted to have risen by 50 per cent in developing countries and by 18 per cent in the developed world. GEO-4 says: "The escalating burden of water demand will become intolerable in water-scarce countries."

    Water quality is declining too, polluted by microbial pathogens and excessive nutrients. Globally, contaminated water remains the greatest single cause of human disease and death.

    The implications are enormous. While ecosystems are undergoing great stress, they are more and more important as suppliers of crucial biological services and as repositories of the world's genetic pool. Think especially of the rich lands of Latin America, like the Amazon, and of Africa, which harbors about one-fifth of all plants, mammals, and birds. In a world where 80 percent of the land is influenced by roads, habitation, river traffic, or agriculture, according to the Human Footprint Project; where overfishing and pollution have reduced many fish populations; where 6.5 billion humans (rising to above 9 billion in this century, if estimates hold) vie for space and returns from the Earth -- in such a world the need for the rich benefits of natural landscapes becomes ever more pressing. Yet only about 12 percent of the Earth's land, and much less of the ocean, is under some kind of protection, and many of the areas that have been set aside are, whether for political or social reasons, too small to support the wildlife and natural features they were intended to protect. Some were founded not on ecological values, but rather for scenic or historical or economic reasons.

    As Jeff McNeeley, chief scientist of the World Conservation Union (IUCN), stated at the 2005 Stony Brook World Environmental Forum on parks and reserves, they are not at all separate from human life. "Protected areas mean culture. We have created them." Although we think of such lands as storehouses of biodiversity, many are crucial to local people for water, building materials, hunting, recreation, and spirituality. Protected areas, in other words, are part of the habitat for human life on Earth, because they help guard the natural world we all rely on. And in a time of global warming, scientists have told the U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity, "genetically diverse populations and species-rich ecosystems have a greater potential to adapt to climate change."

    Perversely, in many cases rapid climate change is knocking the ecological foundations of the parks from under them. If climatic and life zones move outside a park's constrained boundaries, little hope remains for the associated animals, plants, and watersheds. This includes the hundreds of migratory birds and other animals that rely on specific habitats during their yearly journeys. "We can think of our entire nature reserve and park system as a static network," wrote Louis Pitelka, "with little flexibility in the face of climate change." As famed paleontologist Richard Leakey said at the 2005 Stony Brook forum on protected areas, they are "not protected against the ravages of climate change."

    The list of famed parks and World Heritage Sites under great pressure from human development, and now also affected by climate change, reads like an eco-tourist's dream itinerary: the Everglades and West Bengal's Sundarbans mangrove forest, the Great Barrier Reef and Florida Keys, the Monteverde cloud forest of Costa Rica and the Daintree rainforest of northern Queensland, Glacier National Park and Mount Kilimanjaro, Nepal's Sagarmatha National Park, the Farallon Islands, Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and the Antarctic Peninsula, to name just a few.

    Even natural paradises that have just been discovered and are free of direct human damage are menaced by climate change.
  8. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    Is the ocean carbon sink sinking?
    https://www.realclimate.org/index.php/ar ... k-sinking/


    Continued from page 1

    At the other end of the world, in Sweden, researchers at the Abisko Scientific Research Station pioneered the study of UV effects near the Arctic Circle. Their field experiments have shown that UV exposure can reduce nitrogen fixation (the incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia), a process that makes nitrogen organically accessible. They also found that such exposure can make shrubs more vulnerable to early frosts and that it has mixed effects on plant-litter decomposition (UV-B breaks down litter photochemically, but it also kills bacteria and fungi that aid decomposition). Unlike the Antarctic researchers, however, the Abisko scientists found that some plants they observed did acclimatize to increased UV exposure.

    Other scientists were finding that UV-B stimulates the movement of transposons (sequences of nucleotides that can change position on a chromosome) within plant genomes. For example, by irradiating maize pollen, Stanford University's Virginia Walbot induced rampant relocation of these "jumping genes." This type of genetic shuffling may have unpredictable, often deleterious effects.

    Meanwhile, researchers studying UV exposure in animals were learning that it causes everything from developmental problems in fish and retinal damage in frogs to outright death in zooplankton (drifting marine animals, usually of microscopic size). Ultraviolet light has been implicated as one cause of a global decline in amphibians and might also play a role in declines observed in many salmon populations around the world.

    As they tabulate the effects of UV exposure, scientists have also learned more about the defenses that organisms erect against ultraviolet light. Many have chemical compounds that intercept incoming radiation before it reaches cell nuclei. In plants, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds (pigments that in many cases color plant parts) absorb UV-B. In many animals, pigments such as melanin serve to block ultraviolet light; a number of amphibians, for instance, produce eggs equipped with melanin. And in many microorganisms as well as in larger creatures, chemicals called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) also play a role as natural sunscreens.

    Animals cannot synthesize MAAs but have found ways to obtain them from the plants, fungi, and microbes that can. J. Malcolm Shick, of the University of Maine, and his colleagues have found that corals acquire MAAs from the one-celled dinoflagellates that live inside them as mutualists, swapping food and sunscreens for a place to live. They've also shown that sea urchins and sea cucumbers obtain MAAs by eating algae and cyanobacteria. Deneb Karentz, of the University of San Francisco, has determined that the urchins concentrate these MAAs in their eggs; because the eggs are released into surface waters, they need the protection more than the bottom-hugging adults do, she says.

    Often, exposure to sunlight stimulates production of these radiation-intercepting compounds. Extra melanin is deployed in human skin exposed to the sun; this protective response of tanning also occurs in some other mammals and even in some sharks. Production of MAAs and flavonoids may require exposure to UV-A light. But biologists don't know whether organisms evolved the capacity to produce these kinds of chemicals specifically in response to the hazards of ultraviolet radiation. Plant phenolic compounds, for example, play other roles, such as staving off insect attacks. MAAs, by contrast, are not known to serve any other function.

    Previous - 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 -
    https://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m ... 50326/pg_2

    Implications of increased UVB for forest ecosystems are similar to that of plants in general, however, may be potentially more harmful to humans as forests contain large amounts of carbon. If forests begin to die as a result of UVB damage, the stored carbon will be released and will add to the total amount of atmospheric CO2, a greenhouse gas. Thus, forest death will compound the already warming climate.
    https://www.schulich.uwo.ca/ecosystemhea ... enviro.htm
    UV National Index Forecast
    UV Index Notes
    The SunSmart UV Alert indicates when the UV Index forecast is 3 or above, a level that can damage your skin and lead to skin cancer. The UV Alert shows the time of the day people need to be SunSmart.
  9. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    early estimates were that up to 150,000 people had marched in protests around Australia.

    protesters wanted the parties to show a stronger commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and said a near-term target of cutting emissions by 30 percent by 2020 was needed. The Labor opposition has set a 2050 emissions target.

    "Both major parties have credibility problems on climate change because of their failure to commit to the sort of deep cuts to greenhouse emissions in the next decade that are necessary to help prevent dangerous climate change,"

    Australia and the United States have refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, which sets binding targets for carbon pollution by developed countries.

    Australian Prime Minister John Howard says any global agreement must include big developing nations such as China and India.
    https://uk.reuters.com/article/environme ... 2320071111

    https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov ... limate.php

    As India and China become more prosperous and their citizens join the middle class, they are buying air conditioners. By the tens of thousands. Says Mumbai's Geeta Vittal, owner of five: “All my friends have air-conditioners now,” she said. “Ten years ago, no one did.”

    According to the New York Times:

    Rising living standards throughout India and China, the world’s two most populous countries and the fastest-growing major economies, have given a lot more people the wherewithal to make their homes more comfortable. The problem is that Mrs. Vittal’s air-conditioners — along with most window units currently sold in the United States — use a refrigerant called HCFC-22, which damages the ozone.

    “The emissions of things like HCFC-22: we had thought they were sufficiently in control, that we didn’t have to worry about them,” said Joe Farman, the British geophysicist who discovered the ozone hole.

    HCFC-22 is is not as bad as the old chlorofluorocarbons but still a danger. Industrial countries are supposed to phase it out by 2020 but developing countries, which includes China and India, have until 2040. Europe already bans it so units are being dumped in North America, which is why AC units now cost less than a hundred bucks at Wal-Mart.

    So even though HCFC 22 is only 5% as bad for the ozone layer as the old stuff, through sheer volume the ozone hole is expanding again, and is back to the size it was in 2001.
    https://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/02 ... lls_of.php
  10. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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  11. caldera

    caldera Junior Member

    Apr 8, 2006
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    "Think of the climate as a small boat on a rather choppy ocean. Under normal circumstances the boat will rock to and fro, and there is a finite risk that the boat could be overturned by a rogue wave. But now one of the passengers has decided to stand up and is deliberately rocking the boat ever more violently. Someone suggests that this is likely to increase the chances of the boat capsizing. Another passenger then proposes that with his knowledge of chaotic dynamics he can counterbalance the first passenger and indeed, counter the natural rocking caused by the waves. But to do so he needs a huge array of sensors and enormous computational reasources to be ready to react efficiently but still wouldn't be able to guarantee absolute stability, and indeed, since the system is untested it might make things worse.

    So is the answer to a known and increasing human influence on climate an ever more elaborate system to control the climate?

    Or should the person rocking the boat just sit down?"
  12. Ojo

    Ojo Junior Member

    Sep 6, 2007
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    Over simplified analogies will prolly fix it. but just in case the climate doesn't handle like a boat. btw, does sitting improve your chances of survival when the boat sinks?

    Tillage and soil carbon are negatively related. The greater the tillage, the less soil carbon. No-till systems build soil organic matter, which is about 58 percent carbon.

    Different no-till systems result in varying soil disturbance, but any system that reduces tillage substantially can increase soil carbon.
    https://www.fao.org/ag/agL/agll/carbonse ... vities.stm


    We stand by the following facts:

    * The terrestrial biosphere currently sequesters 2 billion metric tons of carbon annually. (US Department of Agriculture)
    * Soils contain 82% of terrestrial carbon.
    * "Enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere is thought to be the most cost-effective means of reducing atmospheric levels of CO2." (US Department of Energy)
    * "Soil organic carbon is the largest reservoir in interaction with the atmosphere." (United Nations Food & Agriculture Organisation) - Vegetation 650 gigatons, atmosphere 750 gigatons, soil 1500 gigatons
    * The carbon sink capacity of the world's agricultural and degraded soils is 50% to 66% of the historic carbon loss of 42 to 78 gigatons of carbon.
    * Grazing land comprises more than half the total land surface
    * An acre of pasture can sequester more carbon than an acre of forest.
    * “Soil represents the largest carbon sink over which we have control. Improvements in soil carbon levels could be made in all rural areas, whereas the regions suited to carbon sequestration in plantation timber are limited.” (Dr Christine Jones)


    The benefits of rewarding farmers for contributing to carbon sequestration include the following:

    * Improved soil health, protecting our most precious national resource
    * Increased soil fertility, boosting productivity and competitiveness
    * Better usage of water, reducing erosion, silting, and salination
    * Reduced danger of rising salt levels, lowering the water table
    * Reduced loss of topsoil to wind and runoff with 100% ground cover
    * Increased farm incomes, increasing viability in volatile industries
    * Increased farm values, giving farm families financial flexibility
    * Foster growth in farm communities, providing employment opportunities and protecting social infrastructure
    some good links

    Mum’s the Word: We Found a Greener Gas
    https://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/07/busin ... 07gas.html

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