Kia ora from Aotearoa New Zealand I've recently purchased a 30 acre property on the Otago Peninsula - very close to Dunedin for those of you who know. A cool climate (we had snow three times last week), but one that is tempered due to the fact that we live right on the coast. Our land is on a headland. A beautiful, albeit often windy, place. Previous land managment has been awful, to say the least. Thrashed is teh concept I often use. The soil has a poor structure and low fertility. There is NO shelter on the property. Luckily I'm young, so I Have lots of time to quietly tinker away and help this beautiful environment restore itself. Anyway. . .at about 30-40 cm tehre is a relatively compact subsoil. It is not a hard hard pan, but will provide problems for tree roots trying to penetrate it. Any ideas - I've thought about ripping. I understand it is common practice in Aussie. Do you need to let the soil consolidate a bit prior to planting?? I assume you plant 10-15cm to one side of the rip. Are there any species in Oz that are particularly well adapted to these hard soils?? They'll need to be salt tolerant as well. We have some really good Eucalypt nurseries here, so probably can source many similar species. Cheers Jodg ???